I've listed some examples of my prior publications related to the Cultural Development of Mathematical Ideas. The publications are organized by topic and most are downloadable (by clicking on bolded text). Please note and adhere to copyright restrictions:  You may download files for personal use; you may NOT download/copy files to another site; you may NOT download or copy files for publication or sale. Thank you!

Cultural-developmental treatment of cognition

Saxe, G. B., & de Kirby, K. (2014). Cultural context of cognitive development. WIREs Cognitive Science, 5, 447-461. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1300

Saxe, G.B. (2012). Approaches to reduction in treatments of culture-cognition relations: Affordances and limitations. Commentary on Gauvain and Munroe. Human Development 55:233-242. 

Saxe, G.B. (2012). The cultural development of mathematical ideas. This download contains images for a colloquium that I presented at Northwestern University. The talk presents some of the core ideas contained in my recent book, Cultural Development of Mathematical Ideas: Papua New Guinea studies. UC Berkeley.

Saxe, G. B. (2008). Reflections on J.V. Wertsch's 'From Social Interaction to Higher Psychological Processes'. Human Development, 51, 80-89.

Saxe, G. B. (1999). Sources of concepts: A cultural-developmental perspective. In E. Scholnick & K. Nelson (Eds.), Conceptual development: Piaget's legacy. The Jean Piaget Symposium series. (pp. 253-267). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Saxe, G. B. (1994). Studying cognitive development in sociocultural context: The development of a practice-based approachMind, Culture, and Activity, 1(3), 135-157.

Saxe, G. B. (1989). Transfer of learning across cultural practices. Cognition and Instruction, 6(4), 325-330.

Saxe, G. B., & Posner, J. (1982). The development of numerical cognition: Cross-cultural perspectives. In H. P. Ginsburg (Ed.), The development of mathematical thinking (pp. 291-317). New York: Academic Press.


Candy selling

Saxe, G. B. (2004). Practices of quantification from a socio-cultural perspective. In A. Demetriou & A. Raftopoulos (Eds.), Cognitive Developmental Change: Theories, Models and Measurement (pp. 241-263). New York, NY: Cambridge University

Saxe, G. B. (1991). Culture and cognitive development: Studies in mathematical understanding. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Saxe, G. B. (1988a). Candy selling and math learning. Educational Researcher, 17(6), 14-21.

Saxe, G. B. (1988b). The mathematics of child street vendors. Child Development, 59(5), 1415-1425.


Straw weaving

Saxe, G. B., & Gearhart, M. (1990). A developmental analysis of everyday topology in unschooled straw weavers. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 8, 251-258.

Educational games

Saxe, G. B. (1992). Studying children's learning in context: Problems and prospects. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 2(2), 215-234.

Saxe, G. B. (2002). Children's developing mathematics in collective practices: A framework for analysis. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 11(2-3), 275-300.

Saxe, G. B., & Bermudez, T. (1996). Emergent mathematical environments in children's games. In L. Steffe, P. Nesher, G. Golding & B. Greer (Eds.), Theories of Mathematical Learning (pp. 51-68). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Saxe, G. B., Earnest, D., Sitabkhan, Y., Haldar, L. C., Lewis, K. E., & Zheng, Y. (2010). Supporting generative thinking about the integer number line in elementary mathematics. Cognition & Instruction, 28(4), 433-474.

Saxe, G. B., & Guberman, S. R. (1998a). Emergent arithmetical environments in the context of distributed problem solving: Analyses of children playing an educational game. In J. Greeno & S. Goldman (Eds.), Thinking practices (pp. 237-256). NJ: Erlbaum.

Saxe, G. B., & Guberman, S. R. (1998b). Studying mathematics learning in collective activityLearning & Instruction, 8(6), 489-501.

Early number in home settings

Saxe, G. B., Gearhart, M., & Guberman, S. R. (1984). The social organization of early number development. In B. Rogoff & J. V. Wertsch (Eds.), Children's Learning in the Zone of Proximal Development (pp. 19-30). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

  Saxe, G. B., Guberman, S. R., & Gearhart, M. (1987). Social processes in early number development. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 52, Serial No. 162.

Collective practices in classrooms

Saxe, G.B., de Kirby, K., Le, M., Sitabkhan, Y., Kang, B. (in press). Understanding learning across lessons in classroom communities: A multi-leveled analytic approach. To appear in A. Bikner-Ahsbahs, C. Knipping, N. Presmeg (Eds.) Doing (qualitative) research: Methodology and methods in mathematics education. ZDM book series: Advances in Mathematics Education.

Saxe, G.B., Shaughnessy, M.M., Gearhart, M., Haldar, L.C (in press).  Coordinating numeric and linear units:  Elementary students strategies for locating whole numbers on the number line.  Mathematics Thinking and Learning.

Saxe, G.B., Diakow, R., and Gearhart, M. (2012). Towards curricular coherence in integers and fractions: A study of the efficacy of a lesson sequence that uses the number line as the principal representational context. ZDM DOI 10.1007/s11858-012-0466-2.

Saxe, G. B., Gearhart, M., Shaughnessy, M., Earnest, D., Cremer, S., Sitabkhan, Y., Platas, L., & Young, A. (2009). A methodological framework and empirical techniques for studying the travel of ideas in classroom communities. In B. Schwartz, T. Dreyfus & R. Hershkowitz (Eds.), Transformation of knowledge in classroom interaction (pp. 203-222). London: Routledge.

Saxe, G. B., Taylor, E. V., McIntosh, C., & Gearhart, M. (2005). Representing fractions with standard notation: A developmental analysis. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 36(2), 137-157.

Gearhart, M., Saxe, G. B., Seltzer, M., Schlackman, J., Ching, C. C., Nasir, N., et al. (1999). Opportunities to learn fractions in elementary mathematics classrooms. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 30(3), 286-315.

Saxe, G. B., Gearhart, M., & Seltzer, M. (1999). Relations between classroom practices and student learning in the domain of fractions. Cognition and Instruction, 17(1), 1-24.

Saxe, G. B., Dawson, V., Fall, R., & Howard, S. (1996). Culture and children's mathematical thinking. In R. Sternberg & T. Ben-Zeev (Eds.), The nature of mathematical thinking (pp. 119-144). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Saxe, G. B. (1995). From the field to the classroom: Studies in mathematical understanding. In L. P. Steffe (Ed.), Constructivism in education (pp. 287-311). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.


Saxe, G.B. and Esmonde, I. (2005). Studying cognition in flux. A historical treatment of fu in the shifting structure of Oksapmin mathematics. Mind, Culture, and Activity, 12(3 & 4), 171-225.

Saxe, G.B. (2014). Cultural development of mathematical ideas: Papua New Guinea studies. NY: Cambridge University Press. Paperback edition available, June, 2014.